These findings suggest that heuristics based on social influence may impact credibility perceptions. More recent theoretical work has focused on modeling credibility evaluations specifically in the context of information shared via networked digital technology. The second proposition of the model is that cues related to the agent (e.g., website domain, computer, or individual posting on a website) might influence credibility perceptions. APA Encyclopedia or Dictionary Entry Citation. This defense motivation might be relevant in the domain of health, particularly when people wish to receive information that conforms with their existing or potentially desired health beliefs, such as a desire to seek comforting information or information that supports an individual’s current health habits. In the last decade or so, credibility perceptions between traditionally offline media sources (e.g., newspapers, television) as compared to online media sources (e.g., social media, health websites) or face-to-face communication have arguably moved toward convergence as “new” media and the Internet have become more pervasively used and trusted. Selective exposure, or a tendency to seek out information to support preexisting attitudes, may be particularly likely in the online environment due to the wealth of information available that likely includes attitude-congruent sources and content (Garrett, 2009; Garrett, Carnahan, & Lynch, 2013; Hartsell, Metzger, & Flanagin, 2012). The major legal application of the term credibility relates to the testimony of a witness or party during a trial.Testimony must be both competent and credible if it is to be accepted by the trier of fact as proof of an issue being litigated. This finding is significant both online and offline, where the positive credibility influence of familiar topics—and conversely, the potential for information about unfamiliar topics to be found less credible—may be important to health and risk messaging. Petty and Cacioppo’s (1986) ELM and Chaiken and colleagues’ HSM (Chaiken, Giner-Sorolla, & Chen, 1996; Chen, Duckworth, & Chaiken, 1999) also suggest that people are motivated to hold “correct” (or accurate) attitudes. Enlisting the help of additional credible sources, such as physicians or members of the healthcare system, can also help when disseminating risk messages. Building trust and the ability to “come through” capably for others even in tough situations increases the credibility of leaders. Both of these models have been widely applied in credibility research, and are of particular importance in the context of health information that may be complex and challenging for an individual to process. This is understandable to the extent that this type of research was particularly common in the early-to-mid-2000s and before (pre–social media). School leaders need to be able to understand the causes and complexities—as well as navigate time elements—associated with ongoing conflict that can take place at the personal as well as organizational levels. Thus, while the focus is on source credibility and health and risk messaging, it is important to note that other factors, such as characteristics of the message and information receiver, may also exert a significant impact on information evaluation, persuasion, and behavior that is relevant to health and risk messaging. However, in some specific circumstances the influence of source cues on persuasion may vary in interesting ways. Other classic work has posed that source credibility exhibits additional dimensions, including dynamism, competence or qualification, goodwill, and objectivity (Berlo, Lemert, & Mertz, 1969; McCroskey & Teven, 1999; Whitehead, 1968). You could not be signed in, please check and try again. The authors suggest that when the source is of more questionable credibility, individuals may wish to more strongly support their own initial (already favorable) position. Selective exposure to online political information, 2004–2008, E-commerce: The role of familiarity and trust, Feeling validated versus being correct: A meta-analysis of selective exposure to information, Developing a unifying framework of credibility assessment: Construct, heuristics, and interaction in context, Social media self-efficacy and information evaluation online, The influence of source credibility on communication effectiveness, Effects of online health sources on credibility and behavioral intentions, Reexamining health messages in the digital age: A fresh look at source credibility effects, Trust and distrust in organizations: Emerging perspectives, enduring questions, Persuasion by a single route: A view from the unimodel, To your health: Self‐regulation of health behavior through selective exposure to online health messages, Looking the other way: Selective exposure to attitude-consistent and counterattitudinal political information, To tweet or to retweet? 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